essay critical analysis

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Thus knowledge of biogeographical ancestry may assist physicians in medical diagnosis Koenig et al. In scientific analysis, it can be important to distinguish, however loosely, between race and ethnicity.

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Biological anthropologist Fatimah Jackson provides a pertinent example of cultural practices being misread as biological differences. Microethnic groups living in the Mississippi Delta, she writes, use sassafras in traditional cooking. Sassafras increases susceptibility to pancreatic cancer. Medical practitioners who do not carefully disaggregate cultural and biological traits might interpret a geographic cluster of pancreatic cancer as related to a genetic or racial trait when, in fact, the disease is produced by cultural practices—in this case, shared culinary habits.

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Problems with Race and Ethnicity Analysis in Research. Cornell, S. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press. Cosmides, L. Perceptions of Race.

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Duster, T. Debating Reality and Relevance. Science , , Strasbourg: Council of Europe.

European Parliment. Official Journal of the European Communities, L , Feldman, M. Race, Ancestry, and Medicine. Much language concerning disabilities is context- and audience-dependent. In general, use language that is sensitive to the specific context and the specific audience. If in doubt, check with your professor, or choose one type of terminology and explain your reasoning in a footnote.

Sociology for UPSC : ETHNICITY Based Social Stratification - Chapter 5 - Paper 1 - Lecture 18

Use people with mental illnesses NOT the mentally ill. The term able-bodied may be appropriate in some disciplines. Ben-Moshe, Liat. Ben-Moshe et al. We hope that this handout illustrates that the language of difference is complex and constantly evolving, and the need for all of us to be thoughtful in our selection of language.

Racial, Ethnic, and Minority Groups

If you have suggestions for revising this handout, please contact the Writing Center. Writing Center. Writing Resources. Writing about Race, Ethnicity, Social Cl Additional Navigation About Us. Tutoring Services. Incorrect Punctuation of Two Independent Clauses.

Misuse of the Apostrophe. Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers. Pronoun Problems. The Dreaded Pet Peeves. Writing Prizes. Faculty Resources. We humans categorize each other as a way to describe and assign differences, including differences of race, ethnicity, social class, disability, gender, and sexual orientation.

Racial and Ethical Development and Identity

How do we discuss these categories respectfully? Among all the languages spoken by South Asian Muslims, it was the only one whose defence was the object of a Muslim League resolution. Constructing its narrative in opposition to India, Pakistani historiography insisted on the separateness of the Indus valley from the Gangetic plains, relying on a distinction between Hind and Sindh found in the writings of Persian travellers. Why did those who imagined Pakistan before and built its institutions after independence fall for the temptation of social engineering instead of conceiving the new state in a plural form?

The author does not indicate whether an answer should be sought in the notion of a modular pattern of nationalism Anderson , in the worldwide spread of a shared understanding of the concept of culture Sartori , in the hegemonic nature of the state Chatterjee , or in the roots of the Pakistan movement Jalal Nonetheless she provides two interesting examples, India and Indonesia, and compares them with the case of Pakistan. India, conversely, managed to put an end to widespread language riots by redrawing its administrative map along linguistic lines while maintaining Hindi and English as national languages.

Pakistani official nationalism, far from being constant and uniform, changed over time and is perhaps better understood as a result of competing discourses in between and within institutions. Here, the distinction made by Siddiqui between state military, bureaucracy and government elected officials appears useful. According to Siddiqui:.

Lesson plan - culture, race & ethnicity

Ethnic amelioration is possible if a government exists and functions on principles of consociationalism and power-sharing. If the government of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto managed to mould Pakistani nationalism into a more inclusive narrative, the process went hand in hand with tighter repression of subversive discourses. The government of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto shifted the limits between the acceptable and the subversive, but this strengthened the need to suppress the subversive.

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The distinction between state and government thus seems of limited heuristic value, since it neither serves as a basis for a generalization nor entails a proper sociology of the state, which would yield sharper conclusions. That nationalism relies on means of propagation other than print 3 —which is not a novel idea see Chatterjee 73 —leads Ayres to turn to Punjabi cinema to show how Punjabi popular culture tried to reverse a sense of inferiority. The simple categorization of Sindh and Balochistan as rural and tribal overlooks the complex relations between rural and urban areas, as a result of which the changes in urban lifestyles significantly impact rural social structures.

Incidentally, students and educated men with a rural background are often also highly politicised, and at the forefront of nationalist movements. But taking for granted that Sindh, Balochistan and Mohajirs are already formed nations, or ethnic groups, leads him to miss an important element: that nation-formation is a performative process. Thus, understanding the politics of ethnicity requires looking into the claims to nationhood that ethno-national groups put forward on the basis of historical revisionism and the mobilisation of symbolism, a process certainly not pursued uniformly by all members of ethnic groups.

But as Siddiqui notes, ethnic organisations and their leaders are subject to co-optation by the state, moulding the official standpoint of political organisations over time.