Ritter-Schmalz, R. Schwitter eds. This piece is accepted for publication with Brill's Mnemosyne journal.
Free term paper on Alexander the Great- Obituary
Abstract: The present article hypothesizes that a bizarre omen story of Alexander's death belongs in a Hellenistic literary context rather than a historical Abstract: The present article hypothesizes that a bizarre omen story of Alexander's death belongs in a Hellenistic literary context rather than a historical Babylonian one.
Several texts, including the Greek Alexander Romance 3. The court of Alexander decides to burn the portent. I suggest that the omen should be read as a manifestation of a teras in the Greek paradigm and, in support of this argument, I offer comparable evidence from numerous sources, including iconographical material and the animal prophecies, primarily from the Old Testament Book of Daniel. The article ends with some thoughts on how this teras interpretation of the omen story exposes the tale as a Hellenistic construct. Imitatio Alexandri? Eine Notiz zu einem falschen?
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Interview: Photos of looted mosaics help pinpoint foundation date of Hellenistic city in Syria. One of the largest Hellenistic cities, Apamea, whose ruins are located in modern day Syria, was founded in the autumn of BC, determined Marek Titien Olszewski from the University of Warsaw. Ancient Charax Spasinou Iraq — Interpreting a multi-phase city. The ancient city of Charax Spasinou was situated in southern Iraq near Basra, between the rivers Tigris and Eulaios, at the modern location Jebel Khayaber. It offers the opportunity to study the layout and functionality of a major urban It offers the opportunity to study the layout and functionality of a major urban city dating from the Seleucid to the Sasanian period.
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The city was originally founded by Alexander the Great and given the name Alexandria Campbell et al. This settlement was again destroyed by flooding. Due to its favourable location Charax became a very important harbour in the Persian Gulf area and a major trading point between India and Babylonia, supplying goods further up to the Mediterranean Campbell et al. Charax was first identified with Jebel Khayaber in , when distinctive ramparts with an average height of 4m to 6m were documented Hansman Stuart Campbell. Related Topics. Alexander challengers to the throne were killed and others fled to the Persians.
Hamilton 44 He quickly acted by force against the uprisings of barbarians at Macedonia's northern boarder.
In Greece, Alexander continued his father's vision. He continued the core elements of the League of Corinth. He allowed the existing governments and administration in the city-states to remain as they were. As Hegemon of the League of Corinth, Alexander guides the Greeks foreign policy but left them to their internal governing. Alexander left the tribes in Thrace that submitted and pledged an alliance.
Alexander the great - Research Paper Example
They were allowed to continue their tradition way, the king of Triballiand and other various cities along the He respected Darius as the head of the mighty Persian Empire, though Alexander regarded himself as a higher authority because he believed his power came from the gods, according to Abernethy. He sent Darius's body back to Persepolis and ordered that he be given a royal burial.
Alexander wanted the transition in Persia from Darius's power to his own to be peaceful. It needed to have the appearance of legitimacy to appease the people, and providing a noble burial for Darius was part of that, explained Abernethy. Alexander was influenced by the teachings of his tutor, Aristotle, whose philosophy of Greek ethos did not require forcing Greek culture on the colonized.
In this way, he would gain their loyalty by honoring their culture, even after the conquest was complete, creating security and stability. Alexander himself even adopted Persian dress and certain Persian customs," said Abernethy. Alexander pursued Bessus eastward until he was caught and killed. Then, wishing to incorporate the most easterly portions of the Persian Empire into his own, he campaigned in central Asia. It was a rocky, frost-bitten campaign, which raised tensions within his own army and, ultimately, would lead to Alexander killing two of his closest friends.
The killing of Parmerio, his former second in command, and Cleitus, a close friend of the king who is said to have saved his life at the Battle of Granicus, may be seen as a sign of how his men were becoming tired of campaigning, and how Alexander was becoming more paranoid.
At some point during Alexander's campaign in central Asia, Parmerio's son, Philotas, allegedly failed to report a plot against Alexander's life. The king, incensed, decided to kill not only Philotas and the other men deemed conspirators, but also Parmerio, even though he apparently had nothing to do with the alleged plot. According to the writer Quintus Curtius who lived during the first century A. Arriving in Parmerio's tent in the city where he was stationed, he handed him a letter from Alexander and one marked as being from his son. When he was reading the letter from his son, a general named Cleander, who aided Polydamus with his mission, "opened him Parmerio up with a sword thrust to his side, then struck him a second blow in the throat…" killing him.
Translation by Pamela Mensch and James Romm. A second casualty of Alexander's was his old friend Cleitus, who was angry that Alexander was adopting Persian dress and customs. After an episode where the two were drinking, Cleitus told his king off, telling him, in essence, that he should follow Macedonian ways, not those of the Persians who had opposed him. After the two got drunk, Cleitus lifted up his right hand and said "this is the hand, Alexander, that saved you then at the Battle of Granicus.
Alexander took his act of murder terribly. Alexander's days in central Asia were not all unhappy.sailandnasizetou.gq
Alexander the Great Research Paper
After his troops had captured a fortress at a place called Sogdian Rock in B. The two married and, at the time of Alexander's death, they had an unborn son. Despite the fatigue of his men, and the fact that he was far from home, he pressed on into a land that the Greeks called "India" although it was actually present-day Pakistan. He made an alliance with a local ruler named Taxiles who agreed to allow Alexander to use his city, Taxila, as a base of operations.
He also agreed to give Alexander all the supplies he needed, something important given Alexander's long supply lines. In exchange, Alexander agreed to fight Porus, a local ruler who set out against Alexander with an army that reportedly included elephants. The two armies met at the Hydaspes River in B. Alexander bided his time, he scouted the area, built up a fleet of ships and lulled Porus into a false sense of security, having his men make it appear that they were going to cross the river so many times that eventually Porus got tired of responding and just ignored the noise they made.
Alexander selected a spot on the river with a wooded island and, at night, managed to bring his troops across to the opposite bank. When Porus mobilized his forces he found himself in a predicament, his cavalry was not nearly as experienced as Alexander's and, as such, he put his elephants, something the Macedonians had never faced in large numbers, up front.
Alexander responded by using his cavalry to attack the wings of Porus's forces, quickly putting Porus's cavalry to flight. The result was that Porus's horses, foot soldiers and elephants eventually became jumbled together. Making matters worse for Porus, Alexander's phalanx attacked the elephants with javelins, the wounded elephants going on a rampage stomping on both Alexander's and Porus's troops. With his army falling apart Porus stayed until the end and was captured.
Arrian wrote that Porus was brought to the Macedonian king and said "treat me like a king, Alexander.
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In , Alexander's close friend, general and bodyguard Haphaestion died suddenly from fever. Haphaestion's death caused a drastic change in Alexander's personality, said Abernethy. He lost his self-control and his compassion for his men. He became reckless, self-indulgent and inconsistent, causing a loss of loyalty by his men and officers. He had always had a violent temper and been rash, impulsive and stubborn.