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It resulted in the South African economy starting on its back foot.

The study has indicated how the two policies can be combined in recruitment to help reduce the mono-representation at the work-place. The study on the perception of affirmative action on women recruitment and career development endeavored to examine the general public perception of affirmative action and to what extent affirmative action is a panacea to women unemployment.

It was so challenging for the researcher during data collection because the questionnaires were not returned back as they were distributed. The post-election skirmishes, for instance, were the major cause for this and this affected research a great deal and delayed in data analysis.

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This study was concerned with the perception of affirmative action on women recruitment and career development. The study was conducted in organizations within Eldoret municipality, Uasin Gishu district, from October to February using an expost facto survey research design.

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The study targeted all the organizations within Eldoret Municipality. Data was collected using questionnaires and interviews. The study was guided by Rawls theory of justice which states that all social primary goods, liberty and opportunity, income and wealth, and the bases of self-respect should be distributed equally Rawls, The basic point throughout the theory is that, everyone deserves to be treated equally and be offered the same opportunities.

But, that is not what it is. It is not what everyone does. Rawls discussed the theory of justice in two models: purity of the heart and the veil of ignorance. First is the description of people in the hypothetical situation of choosing principles for living together. They are imagined as rational, self-interested individuals who aim to do as well for themselves as they can.

They are roughly equal in capacity no one can easily dominate all the others and they have needs that can be met more effectively by cooperation than by non-cooperation. The second part of Rawls' model is: the Veil of Ignorance. Rawls, apart from recognizing that persons act on self-interest, also thinks that persons can be rational about their self- interest. That persons know what they need to make their plan work and that persons mostly stick to their plan throughout their lives even if they are never completely successful.

Rawls figures that people would simply design a society, which would help them with their own personal plan and care not about everybody else Rawls, According to Rawls, this cannot result in a just society. Rawls' theory of justice revolves around the adaptation of two fundamental principles of justice, which would, in turn, guarantee a just and morally acceptable society. The first principle guarantees the right of each person to have the most extensive basic liberty compatible with the liberty of others. The second principle states that social and economic positions are to be to everyone's advantage and open to all Nussbaum, The two basic principles of justice states that: each person should get an equal guarantee to as many different liberties and as much of those liberties as can be guaranteed to everyone else at the same time.

Principle two states that, inequalities in society are okay only if they are arranged so that the inequalities actually help out the least fortunate persons in society. The inequalities are connected to positions or offices or jobs in society that everyone has an equal opportunity to attain. However, Rawls is not talking about complete liberty to do, to have or to keep absolutely anything.

The inequalities Rawls is talking about are:. Suppose all the political doctrines teach, as some do today, that men and women are fully equal as citizens Piccard, then that means, according to Rawls theory, all people must be treated equally not only in such matters as voting and political participation, but must also be treated equally in distributing all primary goods and secondary goods.

But that still does not mean that men and women are equal in some ultimate metaphysical sense, though each person possesses an inviolability founded on justice that even the welfare of society as a whole cannot override. Rawls believes that political actors in a liberal society should not directly contradict the views of religions that posit inequalities between men and women. For instance, it was suggested that a Supreme Court of Justice, in an opinion on sex discrimination, should say only that all people are equal as citizens and not that men and women are equal by nature.

In other words, there should be no differences except those that can be justified on grounds of efficiency Piccard, This theory is therefore applicable to this study in that it advances that all people are equal as citizens and not that men and women are equal by nature. There should be no differences in recruitment except those that can be justified on grounds of competence. This theory advances that inequalities in society are acceptable only if they are arranged so that they actually help out the least fortunate persons in society.

Affirmative action is a practice that redresses inequality in society and is therefore meant to promote justice. The study looked at the perception of affirmative action women recruitment and career development. This chapter explores on the literature related to the study. The literature was gathered from textbooks, journals, newspapers, magazines, theses and the Internet. Born of the Civil Rights Movement three decades ago, affirmative action calls for minorities and women to be given special considerations in employment, education and making decisions Froomkin, Many supporters of affirmative action see it as a milestone, many opponents see it as a millstone, and many others regard it as both or neither- as a necessary, but imperfect, remedy for an intractable social disease Plous, The focus of such policies range from employment and education to public contracting and health programs.

The impetus towards affirmative action is two-fold: to maximize diversity in all levels of society, along with its presumed benefits, and to redress perceived disadvantages due to overt, institutional, or involuntary discrimination. Seltzer and Thompson noted significant differences in attitudes on affirmative action held by women, Blacks and Whites. The attitudes of high income Blacks differs from those of less-advantaged Blacks.

White women are more supportive of affirmative action programs than White males. Well-educated Whites hold more liberal views on affirmative action than less-educated Whites. In a paper on affirmative action presented at the United Nations conference in , Greenberg, notes that Malaysia, India, Israel, and the United States had affirmative action complying with the definition; Nigeria and Peru had arrangements that did not comply with the definition but were similar in purpose; Yugoslavia had affirmative action within regional minority areas while Sudan and West Germany had no affirmative action.

Geust further argues that affirmative action ends up helping well-off blacks. That policy hampers productivity and fosters corruption and affirmative action ends up hurting everyone even the purported beneficiaries. Scott and Scott presented their empirical findings that include the following: that affirmative action programs for minorities are under fire in the US but they are embraced in South Africa Scott and Scott, According to Froomkin , affirmative action is the World's most ambitious attempt to redress its long history of racial and sexual discrimination.

Nevertheless, these days it seems to incite rather than ease the nation's internal divisions Froomkin, Affirmative action has been under sustained assault Sturm and Guiner, In courts, legislatures, the media and opponents have condemned it as an unprincipled program of racial and gender preferences that threaten fundamental values of fairness, equality, and democratic opportunity Sturm and Guiner, Such preferences, they say, are extraordinary departures from prevailing meritocracy modes of recruitment, which they present as both fair and functional. They are fair because they treat all candidates as equals and they are functional because they are well suited to picking the best candidates.

This challenge to affirmative action has been met with concerted response Sturm and Guiner, Landsberg argues that the history of affirmative action and its efforts to correct the effects of past discrimination promote diversity and endeavor to overcome the two-class society characterized by gender and racial division. Landsberg added that the perception of affirmative action might lead to the assumption that affirmative action appointees are hired for reasons other than legitimate qualifications for the job. Although anecdotes can be traded, there is little evidence to suggest that there is any truth in the perception that affirmative action recipients are less qualified than their colleagues Pratkanis and Turner, Panafrican notes that there is nothing discriminatory about an orderly transition towards the demographic representation of employees in the workplace, provided that the beneficiaries of affirmative actions have the necessary knowledge and skills.

Affirmative action should not create room for quotas, which would mean the promotion of ill-equipped candidates Landsberg, Carloff argues that affirmative action simply places unqualified and incompetent members into jobs in society and seats in universities - not because they are smart, not because they are qualified, not because they are an exemplary product of education, but entirely because of their gender!

Sher says that affirmative action devalues the accomplishments of people who are chosen because of the social group to which they belong rather than their qualifications. It is said that affirmative action devalues the accomplishments of all those who belong to groups it is intended to help. This makes the affirmative action counterproductive.

Affirmative Action in South Africa does more harm than good

Does affirmative action simply change who is discriminated against and makes it legal for the new discriminators? McElroy advanced this notion that affirmative action is discriminating in order to obtain equal treatment. This seems to violate common sense. McElroy indicated that people that are involved and the damage affirmative action have in our society surfaces many doubts.

To Garry affirmative action has undesirable side-effects apart from failing to achieve its goals. It hinders reconciliation, replaces old wrongs with new wrongs, undermines the achievements of minorities, and encourages groups to identify themselves as disadvantaged, even if they are not.

Further Delgado said that affirmative action that aims at removing discrimination is counterproductive. This is because it requires the very discrimination it is seeking to eliminate in order to work and because it promotes prejudice by increasing resentment of those who are the beneficiaries of affirmative action from those who have been adversely affected by the policy.

According to Fiss , a doubt is created in the minds of some women who obtain the prized positions, including the prizewinners themselves, as to whether they would be where they are without preference. For rejected men applicants, there is the frustration of desire, of not being able to obtain specific job. In addition, these applicants suffer a hurt that women know all too well-the hurt that comes from being judged disfavourably on a criterion unrelated to individual merit and over which they have no control Fiss, Sturm and Guiner argue that affirmative action is still needed to rectify continued exclusion and marginalization.

In addition, Sturm and Guiner marshal considerable evidence showing that conventional standards of selection exclude women and people of colour, and that people who were excluded in the past do not yet operate on a level playing field.

Researching affirmative action at UCT | UCT News

However, this response has largely been reactive Sturm and Guiner, Proponents typically treat affirmative action as a crucial but peripheral supplement to an essentially sound framework of selection for jobs and schools. Drogin hails affirmative action as a panacea to redress the imbalances of the past whereas McElroy perceives it as reverse discrimination.

It is not unfair discrimination to promote affirmative action consistent with the Act or to prefer or, exclude any person on the basis of inherent job requirement Drogin, Furthermore Delgado argues, since all men have equal rights, no man's rights should be sacrificed to compensate for another man's rights being taken away.

Such people often claim that the groups that are most negatively impacted by affirmative action are women who are discriminated against within society. This disproportionate effect is perverse and counter-productive considering that the intent of affirmative action is to eliminate discrimination Delgado, According to Delgado this can result in a loss for a nation not working at its full capacity and can also result in undesired effects previously felt by those who were discriminated against. For example, one may be very qualified for a certain job, but may be turned down in favor of a woman who is less qualified but is targeted for affirmative action. If occurring on a grand scale, the country will lose speed in its advances. Each of those individuals turned down will be depressed.